How many women are there in the EU27? How many of them are below 25 or above 65 years of age? What is the difference in salary between women and men? What proportion of physicians, tertiary level academic staff and managers are women? What percentage of students in tertiary education and in particular in engineering, business or education are women? Do women use the internet more or less than men? Answers to these questions and to others can be found in a news release, published by Eurostat on the occasion of the International Women’s Day on 8 March.
The news release presents a number of the large amount of gender based data available from Eurostat. For example, more than a quarter of all women are aged below 25 in 2008.
In the EU27 in 2008, there were 104.8 women per 100 men. There were more women than men in all Member States, with the highest proportions observed in Estonia (117.2 women per 100 men), Latvia (116.9), Lithuania (114.8) and Poland (107.0), and the lowest in Ireland (100.3), Malta (101.0) and Sweden (101.2).
There were just over a quarter of a billion women in the EU27 in 2008. Around a quarter of them (27% or 68 million) were aged less than 25, more than half (54% or 137 million) were aged 25 to 64 and nearly a fifth (19% or 49 million) were aged 65 and over.
The proportion of women aged less than 25 in the total number of women ranged from 23% in Italy, 24% in Germany and Greece and 25% in Bulgaria, Spain and Slovenia to 34% in Ireland, 32% in Cyprus and 30% in France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom (in 2007).
On the other hand, the proportion of women aged 65 and over ranged from 12% in Ireland and 13% in Cyprus to 23% in Germany and Italy.
Women earned 17.4% less than men on average in the EU27 in 2007. The Member States with the largest gender pay gaps1 were Estonia (30.3%), Austria (25.5%), the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Slovakia (all 23.6%), Cyprus (23.1%) and Germany (23.0%), and the smallest Italy (4.4%), Malta (5.2%), Poland (7.5%), Portugal and Slovenia (both 8.3%) and Belgium (9.1%).
In 2006, 41% of physicians in the EU27 were women, compared with 35% in 1996. The proportion of female physicians has increased between 1996 and 2006 in almost all Member States for which data are available. In 2006, this proportion differed greatly between the Member States, ranging from 22% in Malta and 27% in Luxembourg (both in 2004) to 73% in Latvia, 70% in Estonia, 69% in Lithuania and 68% in Romania.
In 2006, 38% of academic staff in tertiary education in the EU27 were women, compared with 33% in 1998. This proportion also increased between 1998 and 2006 in almost all Member States. The highest percentages in 2006 were found in Latvia (57%), Lithuania (53%), Estonia (49% in 2004) and Finland (48%), and the lowest in Malta (28%), Slovenia and Italy (both 34%).
Nearly a third (33%) of managers in the EU27 in 2007 were women, compared with 30% in 2001. There were fewer female managers than male managers in all Member States, with the highest proportions of female managers in 2007 recorded in Latvia (40%), Lithuania and France (both 38%) and Poland (36%), and the lowest in Cyprus (15%), Malta (19%) and Luxembourg (21%).
In the EU27 in 2008, 62% of women and 67% of men aged 16 to 74 had used the internet in the last 12 months. The proportion of women using the internet was highest in Sweden (88%), the Netherlands (86%), Denmark (84%) and Finland (83%), and lowest in Romania (31%), Greece (36%) and Bulgaria, Italy and Cyprus (all 39%).
The proportion of men using the internet was higher than for women in all Member States in 2008, except for France (72% for women and 69% for men) and Ireland (66% for women and 65% for men). The largest differences were found in Luxembourg (74% of women compared with 91% of men), Austria (67% and 79%), Italy (39% and 50%) and Greece (36% and 46%).
In the EU27 in 2008, the proportion of women aged 16 to 74 who used the internet to order or buy goods or services (e-commerce) in the last 12 months was 30% compared with 35% for men. The highest proportions for women were observed in Denmark (55%), the United Kingdom (54%), the Netherlands and Finland (both 52%), and the lowest in Bulgaria (2%), Romania (3%) and Greece (5%). In almost all Member States, the proportion of men who bought goods and services over the internet was higher than for women.
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